Ingredient Decoder

Our All Star Ingredients



Camellia Sinesis Leaf Extract

Centella Asiatica Extract

Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Flower Extract

Citric Acid

Glycolic Acid

Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice) Root Extract

Hyaluronic Acid

Hydrolyzed Hyaluronic Acid

Lactic Acid 


Malic Acid

Polygonum Cuspidatum Root Extract


Rosmarinus Officinalis (Rosemary) Leaf Extract

Salicylic Acid

Scutellaria Baicalensis Root Extract

Shea butter

Sodium Hyaluronate

Witch Hazel


All Ingredients


A synthetic preservative, solvent and moisture-binding agent belonging to a class of agents known as higher molecular glycols. Its primary action as a preservative is against bacteria and also acts as a humectant and emollient, improving texture and optimizing moisture.


Acetyl Hexapeptide-8

A synthetic peptide that has humectant properties improving skin hydration. It is also a neurotransmitter-inhibiting peptide, meaning it works within skin’s surface layers to interrupt the look of expression lines; however, this effect is transient and does not substitute in-office treatments like neuromodulators (E.g. Botox).

Ruiz, M. A., et al. "Evaluation of the anti-wrinkle efficacy of cosmetic formulations with an anti-aging peptide (Argireline®)." Ars pharm 50.4 (2010): 168-176.

Wang, Yuan, et al. "The Anti-Wrinkle Efficacy of Argireline, a Synthetic Hexapeptide, in Chinese Subjects." American journal of clinical dermatology 14.2 (2013): 147-153.


Adenosine is a water-soluble yeast-derived ingredient that functions as a good soothing agent. It is useful for barrier repair and reducing inflammation. It is a natural component of the body and is crucial for cell-signalling processes in the body. The fact that it is naturally in your body allows it to be specifically identified in skin cells, allowing for a direct connection and improved efficacy when applied on the skin.

J Invest Dermatol 119: 1034-1040 (2002)., P2X purinergic receptor antagonist accelerates skin barrier repair and prevents epidermal hyperplasia induced by skin barrier disruption.

Alcohol / Ethanol

A controversial ingredient, but its pros outweigh its cons when formulated in the right amounts and concentration. Firstly it is a great solvent for ingredients that do not dissolve in water or oil. It is fast absorbing and acts as a great astringent, leaves a refreshing feeling on the skin. It also improves ingredient penetration allowing active ingredients to reach optimal layers. And last but not least, it's antimicrobial, helps to disinfect the skin and works well for acne-prone skin. 


Allantoin is a naturally occurring compound in our bodies - a byproduct of uric acid that can be extracted from urea and is the result of metabolic processes. It serves as an effective anti-inflammatory and soothing agent and has moisturizing properties, giving it value especially in treating sensitive or compromised skin. 

European Journal of Pharmacology, February 2018, pages 68-78

Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, June 2017, Volume 76, Issue 2, Supplement 1

Aminomethyl Propanol

An alkaline (high pH, aka basic) material that is used to set the pH of the cosmetic formula to the right value. 

Ammonium Acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP Copolymer

A kind of polymer (big molecule from repeated subunits) that helps to create gel-like textures. It's also a texturizer and thickener for oil-in-water emulsions. It reduces the tacky or sticky texture found in gel products.

Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)

It is the primary water-soluble antioxidant in our tissue and plays a big role in the complicated process where our skin creates some nice new skin-firming collagen. It is also a UV protection booster and acts as a tyrosinase inhibitor to minimize hyperpigmentation or brown spots. 

Ascorbyl Glucoside

Even though Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) is great, it is unstable and oxidizes easily. As such, alot of formulations use Vitamin C derivatives for ease of formulation to improve the stability compound. Ascorbyl Glucoside is one of the best options when it comes to vitamin C derivatives. In vitro (meaning done in the lab, not on real humans) studies show that ascorbyl glucoside can easily penetrate the skin and is comparable to pure Ascorbic Acid in terms of its three anti-aging benefits  of antioxidant protection, collagen stimulation and minimizing hyperpigmentation. 

Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, Volume 11 (4) – Dec 1, 2012, Stability, transdermal penetration, and cutaneous effects of ascorbic acid and its derivatives


It acts as \a solvent for ingredients that do not like to dissolve in oils but rather in water. 


Bis-PEG / PPG-16 / 16 PEG / PPG16 / 16 Dimethicone

It acts as an emollient and surfactant. This protects the skin barrier and minimizes trans-epidermal water loss through the surface of the skin.


It is a clear oily fluid that has anti-inflammatory and soothing properties. 

Brassica Campestris (Rapeseed) Sterols

It is a mixture of sterols obtained from the cabbage, brassica campestris l., brassicaceae with emollient properties.

Butylene Glycol

It acts as a solvent for other ingredients to dissolve in and improves penetration of other ingredients (penetration enhancer), allows the product to spread nicely over the skin (slip agent), and draws water (humectant) into the skin. It is a safe ingredient approved by Ecocert and is also used commonly in natural products.

Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter

It comes from the seeds of African Shea and has emollient properties, speeds up skin regeneration and healing and builds up the skin barrier. It is also rich in antioxidants (among others vitamin A, E, F, quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate).


Camellia Sinensis Leaf Extract

This is also known as green tea extract. The most useful components of the tea are called polyphenols, and even more precisely catechins. It is a great Antioxidant and protects the skin from UV damage and erythema (redness). It is also known to be anticarcinogenic by inhibiting DNA damage and even activates some enzymes that help with DNA repair. It also acts as an anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial - excellent for acne prone skin types. 

Journal Der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Volume 13 (8)– Aug 1, 2015, Green tea in dermatology – myths and facts

Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, Volume 2012 (2012) – Jun 26, 2012 Protective Mechanisms of Green Tea Polyphenols in Skin

Journal of Drugs in Dermatology : JDD, [2009, 8(4):358-364], The efficacy of topical 2% green tea lotion in mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris.

Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride

A common emollient from coconut oil and glycerin, well tolerated by all skin types.

Caprylyl Glycol

It is a humectant—a hydrating ingredient that works by attracting water to and holding it in the skin. It also acts as an effective preservative agent. 

Centella Asiatica Extract

It is a well known anti-inflammatory agent. Its biologically active compounds are pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins called asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic and madecassic acid (also called centellosides). They also stimulate hyaluronic acid synthesis in our skin. 

Ceramide NP

They are waxy lipids that can be found naturally in the outer layer of the skin (called stratum corneum - SC). They help to maintain a healthy skin barrier and keep the skin hydrated.

Meckfessel, Matthew H., and Staci Brandt. "The structure, function, and importance of ceramides in skin and their use as therapeutic agents in skin-care products." Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 71.1 (2014): 177-184.

Leslie Baumann, MD, Cosmetic Dermatology, 2nd edition, Ceramides p85-86

Choi, Myeong Jun, and Howard I. Maibach. "Role of ceramides in barrier function of healthy and diseased skin." American journal of clinical dermatology 6.4 (2005): 215-223.

Cetearyl Alcohol

It is a type of fatty alcohol that is an emollient - used to give products a smooth texture. Fatty alcohols have a long oil-soluble (and thus emollient) tail part that makes them absolutely non-drying and non-irritating and are totally ok for the skin.

Cetyl Alcohol

This is another fatty alcohol that acts as an emollient and emulsifier. It allows the skin to be smooth and helps to give products a thicker texture. It is usually derived from coconut or palm kernel oil.

Cetearyl Olivate

An ester that comes from Cetearyl alcohol and the fatty acids of olive oil. It helps to deliver water-soluble actives such as caffeine more effectively, and can boost SPF (UVB protection) in sunscreen formulas. 

Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Flower Extract

It is a well known and potent anti-inflammatory containing chamazulene and bisabolol.

Citric Acid

Citric acid comes from citrus fruits and is an AHA. It is an exfoliant but is much less effective than its other AHA counterparts like glycolic or lactic acid. As such, it is usually not used as an exfoliant but more to adjust the pH of a formulation. 

Copper Tripeptide-1

It helps with wound healing and stimulates the breakdown of unhealthy collagen present in scar tissue and form healthy normal collagen resulting in improved skin texture. It also encourages synthesis of other important skin-identical ingredients like elastin, proteoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans which are crucial for maintaining healthy skin.

BioMed Research International, Volume 2015 – Jan 1, 2015, GHK Peptide as a Natural Modulator of Multiple Cellular Pathways in Skin Regeneration

Loren R. Pickart, Use of GHL-Cu as a wound-healing and anti-inflammatory agent, Patent US 4760051 A

Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber) Fruit Extract

It contains an enzyme called shikimate dehydrigenase in the pulp that’s shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, reducing skin redness and irritation.


A super commonly used volatile silicone that is water-thin and does not stay on the skin but evaporates from it. It creates a lightweight protective barrier on the skin to seal in hydration.


Dimethicone Crosspolymer

A high-molecular-weight silicone elastomer (rubber-like elastic material) that is commonly used as a thickening agent.

Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate

It is derived from one of the main anti-inflammatory ingredients in the licorice plant, monoammonium glycyrrhizinate. It has both anti-inflammatory and sebum regulating properties.

Disodium EDTA

It functions as a chelating agent, meaning it prevents ingredients in a formula from binding with trace elements (mainly minerals) that can be present in water or other ingredients. This enhances the stability of the product.



Ethylhexylglycerin is a synthetic skin-softening agent with humectant properties. It also helps to boost the efficacy of other preservatives. 


Galactomyces Ferment Filtrate

It is obtained by a fermentation process of a certain yeast belonging to the genus Galactomyces. It was discovered as an anti-aging agent when scientists in the 1970's discovered by chance that aged Japanese sake brewers have soft and youthful hands in contrast to their aged and wrinkled faces. This is due to its antioxidant effects and ability to increase hyaluronan production in epidermal cells.

Hattori, Kenji, et al. "Effects of galactomyces ferment filtrate on epidermal barrier marker caspase-14 in human skin cells." Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 62.3 (2010): AB54.

Woolridge, JaNay, et al. "Galactomyces ferment filtrate reduces melanin synthesis and oxidative stress in normal human melanocytes." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY. Vol. 70. No. 5. 360 PARK AVENUE SOUTH, NEW YORK, NY 10010-1710 USA: MOSBY-ELSEVIER, 2014.


This is a plant-derived humectant that helps bind and hold water to skin's surface.


It is naturally occurring in our skin and acts as a powerful humectant and is important for barrier function and optimizing skin hydration.

Glyceryl Stearate

It is a white or pale yellow waxy substance derived from palm kernel, olives, or coconuts. It helps to mix water and oil together in product formulations and is used as an emulsifier and emollient.

Glycolic Acid

It is one of the smallest and simplest AHAs and can penetrate well through the layers of the skin. It is an effective exfoliant and increases collagen synthesis.

Journal Der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, , Volume 10 (7) – Jul 1, 2012, Cosmetic and dermatologic use of alpha hydroxy acids

The Journal of Dermatology, , Volume 25 (2) – Feb 1, 1998, The Effect of Glycolic Acid on Cultured Human Skin Fibroblasts: Cell Proliferative Effect and Increased Collagen Synthesis

Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice) Root Extract

It is one of the safest pigmentation lightening ingredient with high efficacy. It is also a potent anti inflammatory and works well for patients with eczema or rosacea.


Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Leaf Extract

It is an astringent, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-bacterial. The main biologically active components in Witch Hazel are hamamelitannin (a potent astringent and antioxidant), catechins (anti-inflammatory and antioxidant) and gallic acid (antibacterial).

Hyaluronic Acid

HA is a large sugar molecule made from repeated subunits (polymer) that can be found naturally in our body. Because HA is a polymer, its subunits can be repeated many times or just a few times and thus different molecular weight versions exist. High molecular weight HA are larger molecules, while low molecular weight HA are smaller molecules. The larger the molecule, the more likely for it to stay on the surface to provide surface hydration and to form a protective barrier. 

Dermato-endocrinology, Jul 1, 2012, Hyaluronic acid: A key molecule in skin aging

Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, January 2016, Rejuvenating Hydrator: Restoring Epidermal Hyaluronic Acid Homeostasis With Instant Benefits 

Hydrolyzed Hyaluronic Acid

Hydrolyzed Hyaluronic Acid is a low molecular weight, chemically split up version of hyaluronic acid.

Hydrolyzed Sodium Hyaluronate

It's a super small, chemically chopped up version of sodium hyaluronate. It can penetrate the skin better and can moisturize the deeper layers of the skin where normal HA cannot get. A single study had claimed that in a synthetically reconstituted human epidermis, such low molecular weight HA (smaller molecules) can cause inflammation and irritation, but there is insufficient evidence to prove that it has the same results on human skin.


Lactic Acid

This is another form of AHA (Alpha hydroxy acid). As it is a larger molecule than glycolic acid, it penetrates the skin less effectively and thus is a gentler exfoliating agent compared to glycolic acid. It also has moisturizing properties, thus it acts as a useful exfoliant for dry or sensitive skin types.

Lauryl Alcohol

It is used to stabilize emulsion preparations by getting incorporated into the water and oil phase. It is fatty in nature and acts as an effective emollient, retaining moisture in the skin.



One of the main biologically active components of the famous medicinal plant, Centella Asiatica. It is helpful in modulating inflammatory mediators to reduce redness, peeling and irritation. There is also preliminary research to show that it has effects on inhibition of UV induced melanin (pigment) synthesis making it a great ingredient for hyperpigmentation prone skin types.

Jung, Eunsun, et al. "Madecassoside inhibits melanin synthesis by blocking ultraviolet-induced inflammation." Molecules 18.12 (2013): 15724-15736.

Sasmita, Andrew Octavian, et al. "Madecassoside activates anti‑neuroinflammatory mechanisms by inhibiting lipopolysaccharide‑induced microglial inflammation." International journal of molecular medicine 41.5 (2018): 3033-3040.

Malic Acid

A type of AHA, less potent compared to its other AHA counterparts (glycolic and lactic acid) but works well in synergy with other AHA and BHA components. If the stronger AHAs have caused intolerable irritation for very sensitive skin types, malic acid is a good option for gentle exfoliation.


It is a polysaccharide, which means it is composed of long chains of sugar units bound together by glycosidic linkages and acts as an effective emulsion stabilizer. It also acts as moisturizing ingredient as it supports the  Natural Moisturizing Factors found within the first few layers of the skin. The Natural Moisturizing Factors include amino acids, PCA, lactates, sugars, salts, urea, and peptides that work to keep the skin’s surface intact, supple, and hydrated. 

Melaleuca Alternifolia Leaf Oil (Tea Tree Oil)

A potent antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal ingredient that is effective against the acne-causing bacteria called P. acnes and the effectiveness of 5% tea tree oil containing gel is comparable to the gold standard anti-acne treatment, 5% Benzoyl Peroxide lotion.


It's a type of glycol that acts as a solvent, but also has antimicrobial properties and acts as a true preservative booster.

Myristyl Alcohol

Myristyl Alcohol is a saturated fatty alcohol found in natural oils often used in cosmetics as an emollient and a stabilizer, preventing separation. It also acts as an emollient to improve skin hydration.



Commonly known as Vitamin B3, It is a powerful multi-tasker- anti-aging, reduces hyperpigmentation and anti-inflammatory. It can boost collagen production as well as the production of these three important proteins keratin, filaggrin, and involucrin to improve skin structure and have reduced appearance of wrinkles. With regards to hyperpigmentation, it suppresses the transfer of pigment carriers (melanosomes) from pigment producing cells (melanocytes) to the surface of the skin (keratinocytes) while most other skin lighteners block an enzyme called tyrosinase.

Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, Volume 13 (4) – Dec 1, 2014, A review of nicotinamide: treatment of skin diseases and potential side effects

Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2014;27:311-315, Niacinamide - Mechanisms of Action and Its Topical Use in Dermatology



A synthetic peptide that improves skin hydration with humectant properties - binding to water molecules.



Commonly known as pro-vitamin B5, it is an effective humectant and has anti-inflammatory properties. It also promotes fibroblast production which is crucial in wound healing.

Proksch, Ehrhardt, et al. "Topical use of dexpanthenol: a 70th anniversary article." Journal of Dermatological Treatment 28.8 (2017): 766-773.

Pentylene Glycol

It is an emulsion stabilizer, solvent and a broad spectrum antimicrobial.


A type of non-paraben preservative.


It is a type of lipid that makes up the majority of the cell membrane (the border of the cell).As for skincare, it works as an emollient, emulsifier and skin-identical ingredient. It is also often used to create liposomes, small spheres surrounded by phospholipid bi-layer designed to carry active ingredients and helping to improve delivery and absorption across skin layers.


A biocompatible copolymer (a big molecule that consists of more than one type of building blocks) that has the same structure as a phospholipid.

Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Disterate

A vegetable-based emulsifier that is good for formulations made in high heat.

Polygonum Cuspidatum Root Extract

It is extracted from the Japanese knotweed, known in Traditional Chinese Medicine as Hu Zhang, this plant not only helps thwart free radicals before they can damage skin, it also reduces signs of irritation. This plant extract can also inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end-products, or AGEs. AGEs are collagen-damaging proteins and fats that are formed as a reaction from exposure to sugars within the skin. Left unchecked, AGEs can lead to premature skin aging.

Polysorbate 20

It is an emulsion stabilizer and surfactant.

Portulaca Oleracea Extract

It is extracted from a famous plant in Korean traditional medicine to treat infection and irritated skin. It contains omega-3 fatty acids (α-linolenic acid), polysaccharides and amino acids,  β-carotene, minerals, and antioxidants. It is a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent.

Potassium Hyaluronate

This is a salt derived from hyaluronic acid.

Potassium Hydroxide

An ingredient used to adjust the product and formulation to be suitable for other active ingredients.

Potassium Sorbate

It is a preservative against mold and fungus.


It's produced from corn sugar and it's Ecocert approved. It can be used to improve skin hydration and improve preservative efficacy.

Propylene Glycol

It improves the freeze-thaw stability of products and acts as a humectant to improve skin hydration. It also acts as a solvent and improves penetration of other active ingredients. 

There is a lot of misinformation about propylene glycol but the most common misconceptions are the fact that it is a potent skin irritant and that it allows toxins to penetrate the skin. The first claim that it irritates the skin is only if it is used at 100% concentration, which is close to impossible in over the counter cosmetic or skincare products. The second claim has some truth in it but only at more than 10% but it is also rarely ever used at this concentration in cosmetic or skincare products! 

As such, when used in small amounts, Propylene Glycol is not only safe but brings significant benefits by enhancing penetration of useful active ingredients.



Retinal is the intermediate step between retinoic acid and retinol, meaning it needs only one conversion step to become active in the skin. In comparison to Retinol, it is close to 11x more effective. In comparison to Tretinoin (Retinoic Acid), studies have shown no statistically significant difference between the two. There is also far better tolerance and less skin irritation than tretinoin as metabolism of retinaldehyde to retinoic acid occurs only by keratinocytes (skin cells) at a pertinent stage of differentiation, leading to a more controlled delivery of retinoic acid and weaker retinoid associated adverse effects.

Our formulation includes a nanoliposomal carrier that improves the absorption efficiency and bioavailability of retinaldehyde for the highest efficacy and minimizing adverse effects.

Mukherjee, Siddharth, et al. "Retinoids in the treatment of skin aging: an overview of clinical efficacy and safety." Clinical interventions in aging 1.4 (2006): 327.

Dréno, B., et al. "Topical retinaldehyde with glycolic acid: study of tolerance and acceptability in association with anti-acne treatments in 1,709 patients." Dermatology 210.Suppl. 1 (2005): 22-29.

Pechere, M., et al. "The antibacterial activity of topical retinoids: the case of retinaldehyde." Dermatology 205.2 (2002): 153-158.

Fluhr, J. W., et al. "Tolerance profile of retinol, retinaldehyde and retinoic acid under maximized and long-term clinical conditions." Dermatology 199.Suppl. 1 (1999): 57-60.

Rosmarinus Officinalis (Rosemary) Leaf Extract

It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids, and diterpenes. Its main active ingredient is rosmarinic acid which has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant properties. 


Saccharide Isomerate

It is a natural and plant-derived humectant that mimics the natural carbohydrate fraction found in the upper layer of the skin to draw water in, improving skin hydration.

Salicylic Acid

It is a useful BHA (Beta Hydroxy Acid) that can not only exfoliate the skin surface but within the pores. As it is lipid soluble, it can penetrate the pores and exfoliate dead skin cells and minimize black heads and acne formation. 

Scutellaria Baicalensis Root Extract

A traditional Chinese herbal medicine loaded with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory flavonoids such as baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin. There is also research to suggest that it also has antimicrobial and antifungal properties (against P.acnes and Malassezia furfur) making it a useful ingredient for acne prone skin.


A newly created South-Korean peptide that's made synthetically to be identical to the protein called Met-Enkephalin. It's a 10 amino acid neuropeptide that helps the body to regulate how it responds to harmful stimuli and contributes to wound-healing and anti-aging.


It  is a recombinant human peptide produced synthetically to be identical to the protein, enkephalin. It contains 5 amino acids consisting of arginine, glycine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, proline and tyrosine.


A newly created South-Korean peptide that's made synthetically to be identical to the protein called Leu-Enkephalin. It's an 8 amino acid neuropeptide with similar benefits to sh-Decapeptide-7.


It is a single chain recombinant human peptide, produced by fermentation in e. coli. The starting gene is synthesized to be identical to the human gene which codes for enkephalin. It has humectant properties and improves skin hydration.


A type of silicone that's used mainly to stop the product from foaming when it's not needed.

Sodium Acetylated Hyaluronate

It is a variation of hyaluronic acid, where some of the hydroxy groups (-OH) are replaced by acetyl groups (−COCH 3). The modified molecule is claimed to have even better moisture retention ability than standard hyaluronic acid as the acetyl groups are amphipathic properties and attach the molecule to the skin better. This allows for longer lasting surface hydration.

Sodium Acryloyldimethyl Taurate Copolymer

It acts as a dispersing agent, emulsion stabilizer, opacifying agent, and viscosity increaser to improve texture of the formulation.

Sodium Citrate

It is used to adjust the pH of the product for the appropriate active ingredients. It also helps to preserve the formulation by neutralizing the metal ions in the formula.

Sodium Dehydroacetate

It is an effective preservative that is mainly antifungal with mild antibacterial properties.

Sodium Hyaluronate

This is the salt form of hyaluronic acid. When dissolved in water, sodium hyaluronate dissociates into a hyaluronic acid molecule and a sodium atom.

Sodium Hyaluronate Cross polymer

Superior to standard hyaluronic acid, this special crosslinked HA mesh has a remarkable water-binding capacity, approximately 5 times more than standard HA. This water filled crosslinked HA gel forms a smooth film on the skin and continuously delivers the bound water, giving the skin long-standing hydration.

Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD., 2016 Apr;15(4):434-41., Pilot Comparative Study of the Topical Action of a Novel, Crosslinked Resilient Hyaluronic Acid on Skin Hydration and Barrier Function in a Dynamic, Three-Dimensional Human Explant Model.

Sodium Lactate

It has humectant properties and regulates the pH of the formulation.

Sodium Metabisulfite

It is used as a disinfectant, antioxidant, and preservative agent.

Sorbitan Olivate 

It is an ester coming from sorbitol and the fatty acids of olive oil. It is part of the emulsifier trade named Olivem 1000 that is well-known for generating biomimetic liquid crystal structures that are similar to the lipid structures of the stratum corneum (the outermost layer of the skin), which is great for barrier repair and maintenance.

Sodium PCA

PCA stands for Pyrrolidone Carboxylic Acid and though it might not sound like it, it is a thing that can be found naturally in our skin. The sodium salt form of PCA is an important skin-identical ingredient that is an effective humectant.


It is a polyethylene glycol ether of stearic acid. It acts as a cleansing agent, a surfactant, and an emulsifier in different formulations.

Stearic Acid

It is a useful emollient ingredient and helps to stabilize emulsion formulas.

Stearyl Alcohol

Similar to Stearic Acid, It is a useful emollient ingredient and helps to stabilize emulsion formulas. It is also a type of fatty alcohol that does not dry out skin, making it suitable for dry or sensitive skin types.


Synthetic Beeswax

It has emollient properties and hydrates the skin, thus reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.


Tocopheryl Acetate

This is the ester of pure Vitamin E (Tocopherol).  It reduces the damage caused by UVB rays and inhibits photocarcinogenesis but has minimal effect on UVA damage (skin sagging, fine lines) unless used together with Vitamin C.

Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology., 2003 Jun;48(6):866-74., UV photoprotection by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E.



It is a type of sugar with humectant properties.



It is used as a solvent, preservative and texture enhancer.



It is a natural moisturizing factor, NMF. NMFs are important humectant components of the skin. It is thought to be a  "small-molecule regulator of epidermal structure and function" meaning that it is useful for conditions caused by excessive dryness and disrupted skin barrier such as ichthyosis, xerosis, psoriasis, eczema and seborrheic dermatitis. 


Xanthan Gum

It is used as a thickening agent, texture enhancer, and to stabilize emulsions.


A fat-soluble carotenoid pigment that increases skin hydration and elasticity. It also absorbs potentially harmful blue light (the one at 400-500 nm also called high energy visible light, aka HEV light).


Zingiber Officinale (Ginger) Root Extract 

It is the root extract of the ginger plant. It contains the biologically active component called gingerol that has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Combined with Bisabolol,  the duo works synergistically to soothe the skin and reduce erythema (redness).