Retinal is the intermediate step between retinoic acid and retinol, meaning it needs only one conversion step to become active in the skin. In comparison to Retinol, it is close to 11x more effective. In comparison to Tretinoin (Retinoic Acid), studies have shown no statistically significant difference between the two. There is also far better tolerance and less skin irritation than tretinoin as metabolism of retinaldehyde to retinoic acid occurs only by keratinocytes (skin cells) at a pertinent stage of differentiation, leading to a more controlled delivery of retinoic acid and weaker retinoid associated adverse effects.

Our formulation includes a nanoliposomal carrier that improves the absorption efficiency and bioavailability of retinaldehyde for the highest efficacy and minimizing adverse effects.

Mukherjee, Siddharth, et al. "Retinoids in the treatment of skin aging: an overview of clinical efficacy and safety." Clinical interventions in aging 1.4 (2006): 327.

Dréno, B., et al. "Topical retinaldehyde with glycolic acid: study of tolerance and acceptability in association with anti-acne treatments in 1,709 patients." Dermatology 210.Suppl. 1 (2005): 22-29.

Pechere, M., et al. "The antibacterial activity of topical retinoids: the case of retinaldehyde." Dermatology 205.2 (2002): 153-158.

Fluhr, J. W., et al. "Tolerance profile of retinol, retinaldehyde and retinoic acid under maximized and long-term clinical conditions." Dermatology 199.Suppl. 1 (1999): 57-60.